Monthly Archives: October 2018

Palace of Versailles

The enormous and elegant Palace of Versailles was built for King Louis XIV and was completed in 1682, after 21 years of construction. The purpose of building this palace was to move the french court out of Paris. The palace emphasizes King Louis XIV’s importance. King Louis XIV believed that he was very powerful and decided to call himself The Sun King.

This palace is an example of how the french were so extraordinary during the French Revolution. Currently the 67,000 square meter floor space property has 700 rooms with 2,153 windows. To put that into perspective that’s 12 American football fields. Not only is it gigantic, but also very beautiful inside. The design team was: Louis le Vau, Charles Le Brun and Andre le Notre. All who were famous architects and landscapers at the time.

One of the most notable rooms in the palace is the Hall of Mirrors. Many parties and agreements have occured in this room. For example, the treaty of versailles that ended World War I officially. One of the walls in the room has an entire wall covered in mirrors overlooking the 2,000 acre gardens. On the other side of the hall is 357 mirrors that catch the rising sun rays in the morning. This hall is to remind everyone about the Sun King, Louis XIV. In the morning, Louis XIV would walk through the Hall of Mirrors to go to his private chapel. This is quite a luxurious way to wake up in the morning for a king.

(This is how the Hall of Mirrors looks in the morning)

King Louis XIV wanted to leave a statement of his importance to the world by building the Palace of Versailles. Not only for himself but also to glorify the French monarchy and show their classism and power.

Discussion Question: What other artworks do you know were built for a respected person like a king?

Sources:

Château de Versailles. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/early-europe-and-colonial-americas/reformation-counter-reformation/a/chteau-de-versailles

Process Post 8

After reading my last peer review done by Cherie, I realized I have to make my website more marketable. Since I wanted to build a following with my photography account on Instagram. I have decided to share a link to it on every blog post. Asking my readers to spread the word about Let’s talk about Art History. I have chosen to use my Instagram account to spread the word about my blogging site because between 2017 to 2018, Instagram gained 200 million more users. This app is growing ever so fast and is very visual based, similar to my art blog.  Also, I have left my personal email if anyone has any questions about me.

This is the links that show at the end of every blog post. I intentionally put it at the bottom of the page after the reader has finished reading so it is not much of a distraction.

Mini Assignment #3

This time I use clips from Ronnie Coleman. I mixed different clips together along with mixed background music to create this video. Enjoy!

  • Sources: Apple music 
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vWgSTdkc2A
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IaMMu1ckv8
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydmgd81zczg
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lVMwl3FsPg

Essay 1: Social Media is Capitalistic, Not Democratic

On February 2014, Facebook introduced an update called the real name policy (Bivens, 2017). This introduction increased gender identifications from 2 to 58 (Bivens, 2017). As an attempt of inclusivity, Facebook is perceived to be giving a democratic response to a growing concern of minorities in online spaces. More users can now choose who they identify themselves as without compromising their self-identity. However, after the policy has been implemented, many queer and LGBTQ members reported that they can no longer access their profile because their names do not fit with their supposed identity (Bivens, 2017). Facebook may be giving power to its queer users, but I argue that’s not the case. I argue that social media is capitalistic, not democratic. LGBTQ users’ names and genders are to fit in the heteronormative standard in order for marketers and the state to keep track of its citizens through surveillance and protection (MacAulay & Moldes, 2016). Non-binary users are always recoded back to the binary system, exposing the inauthentic gesture of Facebook as inclusive and democratic (Bivens, 2017). LGBTQ users’ fluid and changing experiences cannot be truly represented online. Thus, hindering their entrepreneurial pursuits and community building (Lingel & Golub, 2015).

On Facebook’s Help Center, there is a section that acknowledges names on Facebook (Facebook, 2018). Aside from the things to keep in mind, the standards specify that the name should appear on and ID or part of their ID document list (Facebook, 2018). This means that an expected first and last name must be created for the user. This may not necessarily reflect on queer identities and that already causes conflicts. 

The PEW Research conducted a survey on 1197 self-identified LGBT adults 18 years or older asking about their online use (PEW, 2013). Eighty percent of respondents use sites such as Facebook and Twitter, but the survey shows prohibiting behaviours online (PEW, 2013). Fifty six percent of surveyors said that they have not revealed their sexual identities online, and 83% do not regularly discuss LGBT issues online (PEW, 2013). LGBT groups experience different treatment in these online spaces, but still continue to use it. With Facebook’s real name policy, there was an attempt to be inclusive. Facebook is now in support of these minorities, and empowering them through their profiles. But as seen in MacAulay & Moldes, Bivens, and Lingel & Golub’s works, Facebook is driven by capitalistic notions, disguising their authentic gestures to mask its market driven responses.

MacAulay & Moldes acknowledges that Facebook uses the real name policy to justify legal precedents and cite harmful actions towards others such as harassment, impersonation and trolling (2016). While these seem legitimate concerns, they find that they’re less interested in protecting them rather than making the users ‘transparent to the market and the state’ (MacAulay & Moldes, 2016). A key concept they identify stemming from queer theory is normativity (or heteronormativity). This is described as a regulatory system that naturalizes sex and gender (MacAulay & Moldes, 2016). This process of normativity means that agents and groups take the effort to impose and force individuals to fit into existing systems to keep order or regulate easier. Heteronormativity then entails that binary systems (male and female) are the correct and only way to follow due to economic and legal precedents. This means that anyone who deviates from it are not ‘performing correctly’ (MacAulay & Moldes, 2016). Data collection is another issue that they bring up because this forces users who actively avoid as part of Facebook’s marketer aggregation. They have to choose between binary choices that will not fit them, and that can result in their accounts being banned or ultimately not use the service anymore. A democratic practice in social media will allow any individual to self-express and create within their own public spaces, but the notion of heteronormativity does not give that space to queer users. It simply favours what funds the company running the service. They also cite the increase of market shares that occurred in 2014 after the real name policy was introduced. Market shares in 2011 decreased to 19.82 USD after reports of fake users on Facebook surfaced and after the real name policy was implemented, the shares rose to 78.02 USD in December 2014 (MacAulay & Moldes, 2016). The theory of normativity serves as a great interest to what can be marketed and how that affects minorities who want to use Facebook. And these experiences continue to exist.

Bivens examined Facebook’s gender coding system and found that when coding the genders, females were assigned 1, males were assigned 2, and the ‘undefined’ were assigned 0 (2017). This undefined category has been the standard for coding non-binary genders and how that allows Facebook to include so many gender options. On one hand, the number 0 allows for the existence of non-binaries, but does not exactly fit into the binary code (Bivens, 2017). Bivens found that later updates to the code see that newly assigned genders and their code will default to the undefined because the codes were not established since creating it (2017). The 56 additional genders are now, in the back end, defaulted to 0 even if it is given a defined gender (Bivens, 2017). This allowed Facebook to easily aggregate data that can be sent to marketers who are only interested in the binary genders (Bivens, 2017). The nuances and multiple gender identities have been devolved to 0 and continuously will not receive the technological support on Facebook. These regulations are masked as authenticity, and it does not seem democratic. Rather, it forces its users into shaping to what is acceptable online and what numbers can be easily assigned to them so that it can be quickly shared and sold online. 

It does not support the lives and work of other members of the community too. Drag users are greatly affected by restricting user information flexibility to fit with their fluid and changing personalities to continuously be entertaining drag queens (Lingel & Golub, 2015). Online identity work has become an extension of their own work, and that continuity allows them to stay connected with their fans and fellow queens. It supports them in a capitalistic sense that allows them to advertise their shows and market their identities, but it does not allow multiple identities (Lingel & Golub, 2015). This, again, falls into the notion of normativity where they are forced into one trackable identity. Facebook acknowledges an inclusivity of users, but does not acknowledge multiple and fluid online identities (Lingel & Golub, 2015). Instead, it advocates a unifying and unitary profile (Lingel & Golub, 2015). While drags do not represent the majority of the LGBTQ community, these collective experiences contribute to a shared, limited, and constrained online experience that does not allow the desired expectation to freely express themselves. Rather, they have to fit the normative mold to appease Facebook’s marketers and regulators. The real name policy is just another example in online social spaces that operates to generate revenue. Facebook acts for money, not for its users.

Reference

Bivens, R. (2017). The gender binary will not be deprogrammed: Ten years of coding gender on Facebook. New Media & Society, 19(6), 880–898. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/10.1177/1461444815621527.

Facebook (2018). What names are allowed on Facebook? Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/help/112146705538576?helpref=faq_content.

Lingel, J., & Golub, A. (2015). In Face on Facebook: Brooklyn’s Drag Community and Sociotechnical Practices of Online Communication: IN FACE ON FACEBOOK. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(5), 536-553.

MacAulay, M., & Moldes, M. (2016). Queen don’t compute: Reading and casting shade on Facebook’s real names policy. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 33(1), 6-22.

PEW Research Center (2013, June 13). A survey of LGBT Americans: LGBT adults online. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/06/13/a-survey-of-lgbt-americans/.

King Khafre’s Burial Site

Staying on the same topic as last week, once Khufu’s son died Egyptians, built him a pyramids and The Great Sphinx. The second great pyramid of Giza was called Pyramid of Khafre. Khafre was king Khufu’s second son. Upper parts of Khafre’s pyramid still have some of its outer casing. It is believed that all 3 of the pyramids of Giza, had the similar outer casing. The interior of Khafre’s pyramid is much simpler than Khufu’s. There are two passageways, one single burial chamber and one less significant chamber.

(Upper casing is visible at the top point of the pyramid)

Once Khafre died, not only was he made a pyramid for his burial site, but also a Great Sphinx. This Sphinx was the first enormous sculpture in Egyptian history. The close association between Khafre’s face and the lions head intends that the Sphinx was built for him. The lion is a very important Egyptian animal and references the sun as a symbol of the horizon. The combination of the kings head with such a powerful animal’s body was very important to Egyptian history. The Sphinx has appeared in many ancient Egyptian stories. Something that is very impressive for the when The Great Sphinx was built (2494 BC) is the proper proportion between the animal’s body and the human head. The Egyptians were able to construct the head so that it would last for a long time without being weathered away by sand or falling off the body.

 

Question: What other great leaders have had such a large burial site similar to king Khafre?

 

Sources:

Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/ancient-egypt-ap/a/old-kingdom-pyramid-of-khafre-and-the-great-sphinx

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Maecenas lorem. In convallis. Suspendisse nisl. Nulla turpis magna, cursus sit amet, suscipit a, interdum id, felis. Donec iaculis gravida nulla. Cras elementum. Duis ante orci, molestie vitae vehicula venenatis, tincidunt ac pede. Curabitur ligula sapien, pulvinar a vestibulum quis, facilisis vel sapien. Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Aenean vel massa quis mauris vehicula lacinia. Integer imperdiet lectus quis justo. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. Integer imperdiet lectus quis justo. Etiam bibendum elit eget erat. Etiam commodo dui eget wisi. Nam libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio cumque nihil impedit quo minus id quod maxime placeat facere possimus, omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.

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Social Media Lacks Democracy (Essay 1)

Democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political beliefs, in the popular city of Athens. The first time anyone used democracy was around 508-507 BC. Now we can see it almost all around the world. Some people believe that democracy is even starting to appear on social media; however, I think the opposite. Democracy is not present online because the way social media works, isn’t the same as how a democracy works. Democracy is supposed to be for the common people and with minimum government interaction, while online users are being censored for what they post. Also, the way people act online isn’t the same as a democracy.

 

Democracy is about treating every citizen equally, on the internet some people get a bigger voice than others. Social media filters out who gets a voice and who doesn’t get a voice according to their power. Alex Jones is an American Radio show host and conspiracy theorist whose information was censored on social media. He had four pages on Facebook that were shut down for ‘using dehumanizing language to describe people’ (Hern, A 2018). A few hours after the Facebook ban, Youtube proceeded to terminate his account as well. The power of facebook shutting down and terminating accounts, is an example of social media controlling people’s voices and not letting them be heard, which is the opposite of how democracy works. On the other hand, American President Donald Trump is able to embarrass a senator over twitter saying “lightweight senator _@RandPaul should focus on trying to get elected in kentucky— a great state which is embarrassed by him.” (7. Lightweight (n.d.). Because Trump’s twitter is viewed as a platform for the general public’s interest, twitter excused his inappropriate tweet. Allowing Donald Trump to be able to get away with saying similar statements as Alex Jones is an example of abusing freedom of speech. Faust Rossi, an attorney from the United States Department of Justice Honors Program, also states “Freedom of speech is said to be the most cherished of our constitutional rights.” (Gold, L n.d.). Not limiting the power of government and censoring people’s voices and uncensoring some, contrasts what democracy represents.

 

Fake news has always been an issue throughout all news sources. Now that majority of the people (67 percent of American adults) get their news through social media, fake news has started to become a popular trend. Weather it is someone’s strong belief or just a joke, the internet has been trying to diminish the presence of fake news. Facebook has started to hire fact checkers to scan many articles. This doesn’t represent democracy because whoever published a fake news article isn’t being treated equally, compared to someone who hasn’t. Although the fake news is incorrect it is still someone’s voice that is being deprecated. Similarly if a parliament member isn’t having an equal voice compared to others, then it’s tainted the democratic system.

 

The internet is becoming increasingly popular with adults. A study conducted by The Pew Research Center showed that, 67 percent of adults get their news from social media. This is problematic because people are tailoring only what they want to see online. David Robson said, “Although millions of people are using the internet to expand their horizons, many people are doing the opposite, creating a daily me that is specifically tailored to their own interests and prejudices.” This is creating something called an ‘echo chamber’. An echo chamber is designed to segregate people from other political views. Ideally this is not a trait that a parliament member in a democratic system would want to have. In a democratic parliament, members are allowed to have different opinions; however, each member is encouraged to be open to hearing other people’s beliefs, to have a strong committee. Democracy is about hearing everyone’s opinions and settling with what is best and what majority agrees upon.  

 

Social media has never played such a big role in society before. The way that social media works doesn’t run in a democratic way. People aren’t being treated equally online and is controlled by large firms that act likes governments. Furthermore, people are being trapped in ‘echo chambers’ that are separating everyone apart and not keeping in mind of the majority. Social media is separated into two parts, one the people who have a big enough following to have a say and two the people who have little followings with not much say. Social media does not create democratic spaces for people to have a voice.

Sources:

Pew Research Center. (2017, November 08). Retrieved October 22, 2018, from https://marketingland.com/pew-research-center-says-45-americans-get-news-facebook-228001

7. Lightweight. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/pictures/flji45elmm/7-lightweight/#536045ae1624

Hern, A. (2018, August 06). Facebook, Apple, YouTube and Spotify ban Infowars’ Alex Jones. Retrieved October 22, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/aug/06/apple-removes-podcasts-infowars-alex-jones

Gold, L. (n.d.). Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved October 22, 2018, from http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2011/03/free-speech-central-democracy-rossi-says

Process Post 7

After reading Krystal’s peer review about my website design layout, I found that I need to make some changes. Firstly, when clicking my PUB101 link I have changed it to go to (http://posiel.com/) instead of going to a dead page. Krystal has told me that when she hovers over the menus she doesn’t like the baby blue colour because it doesn’t go with the theme. I agree with her about this; however, I am unable to change this with my theme. Personally I like my design layout how it is right now because it is easy to use and is aesthetically pleasing to me.

Mini Assignment 4: Remix Something!

Hi, my girlfriend took a really cute interaction of 2 dogs. We both love a Shiba Inu so this is extra great to me. She did her own edit to it, but I wanted to make my own remix to it. This is my mood for how aggressive all this productivity is to me. I chose the biggest looming figure over me that’s intimidating me. It’s not the smartphones that I’m writing about. It’s this:

yup.