Author Archives: Traditional Russian Cuisine

Week 12: Moderating your Commentariat and Navigating the Social Waters

The Trolls Have Won

Under the guise of the principle of freedom of speech, the trolls managed to change the culture of the Internet for themselves, turning it into a kingdom of hate. You can troll in different ways: thick, thin, stupid, aggressive, etc. In addition, no one forbids the troll to use all these methods at the same time. However, there are a number of parameters that distinguish a troll from a regular user.

Ah, trolls! If it weren’t for them, the internet wouldn’t have that pungent taste. Not only computer geniuses know about trolls. These include all malicious individuals whose main goal is to disrupt the calm course of discussion of various issues on the forums. To do this, the troll writes provocative messages and tries to stir up controversy. Needless to say, there are plenty of such people on social networks. Be that as it may, trolling can be done in different ways: thick, thin, stupid, aggressive, etc. In addition, no one forbids the troll to use all these methods at the same time.

However, there are a number of parameters that distinguish a troll from a regular user. Usually a troll looks for “food” on several sites at once, makes spelling mistakes, always puts a bunch of emoticons, strives to become a moderator on the forum, scoffs, tries to joke (and almost constantly, even if he does it badly), causes and artificially feeds controversy (even if the discussion has stopped, the troll again gives him a push with the help of a few “throw-ins”). However, it must be admitted that the trolls won. Anyway, that’s what Francisco Dao writes about in his article The trolls have won. Although trolls would be outcasts in the real world, they even have fans on the Internet, he said. “Trolls have succeeded in manipulating the entire culture of the Internet,” he says. “They’ve turned it into a place where anger rules supreme.”

As Francisco Dao notes, the trolls managed to get people to accept unacceptable behavior. Today, on the Internet, everyone is ready to pounce on anyone who disagrees with his point of view. It is difficult to imagine such aggression to be the norm in everyday life. Nevertheless, on the Internet, trolls have undoubtedly taken over: although some users tell them that they have crossed all boundaries, there is always someone ready to stand up for them with the banner of free speech in their hands. As a result of the discussion of any issues, it goes down, and “decent behavior is considered an exception to the rule.” The vulgarization of online discussions was a real triumph for the trolls.


Dao, F., 2013. The trolls have won. [Blog] Pando, Available at: [Accessed 1 December 2020].

Essay 2

How I started off my food blog

I started off my food blog on September 2020 as a part of PUB100 course assignment. Before that, I thought about how great it would be to have my own blog where I can share recipes of my national cuisine, possibly benefit people, and make this world at least a little bit better place. I did not want to start my food blog just because everyone admires my pies and cakes so much, my husband and friends praise, and I myself am no worse than many other food bloggers out there. I realized that in reality to make a successful food blog I need to gain the credit of a wide audience, develop competitiveness, and not drown in the general blogging mass. In order to do that, I had to gain a whole bunch of skills. In particular, photographer skills, the ability to write effectively, to understand my target audience, to understand marketing and web design, to be open and creative, to give a lot of my time to blogging and gaining new knowledge and skills.

You can eat with your eyes!

Photographs are the only thing that can tell the most eloquently about you at the initial stage. Darina Kopcok & Dora Jokkel in their article 20 Awesome Food Photography Blogs to Follow in 2020 – stated that “It doesn’t matter how great your recipe for dark chocolate cake is. If the image doesn’t pull the viewer in, you will have a hard time standing out.”

I realized that having invested a lot of time and effort in the dish, I should not publish this photo if it does not have a “wow” effect. The reader does not care how much time and effort I spent on the recipe, the reader cannot feel the taste and aroma of the dish. He can only see a “tasty” photograph. And if I cannot offer it, it is best not to offer anything. Why should I want to cook a dull chicken, lonely buried on a plate, and photographed as if surreptitiously in the dim light of an evening kitchen lamp, if in a minute I can find online dozens of beautifully shot top-model chickens worthy of a magazine cover?

How I create my publications

For my blog posts I prefer video recipes, which have a list of ingredients and a description of the recipe below the video. This method seems to me the most accessible and understandable even for the most novice cooks. I usually shoot the whole cooking process of a dish. After that I edit the video: cut off unnecessary parts, remove the sound, and add some melody on the background. I may also make some detailed videos for some dishes to make the step by step instructions for the recipe more understandable. Besides videos, I usually attach picture of the dish to every post. I do my best to make a perfect picture by using extra light and editing the picture afterwards. For more clarity, I always add a list of ingredients as well as an instruction below a video recipe. I could improve on my video recipes by adding audio instuction to a video recipe. I am planning to do that in the future.

Jenny Cooper in her article Cooking trends among millennials: Welcome to the digital kitchen – shared with us the statistics “59% of 25- to 34-year-olds head to the kitchen with either their smartphones or tablets.”

Week 11: Multiple Channels, Multiple Media

The world will never be the same: coronavirus will change the way we live, work, and spend you free time

Remote work

Video conferencing and teleworking are literally exploding in parallel with the spread of the coronavirus. Over the past months, video traffic in the world has increased 2-3 times. Zoom, Microsoft Teams, Google Hangouts quickly broke into the top apps. Tech giants, including Twitter and Facebook, are urging employees to work from home to slow the spread of the virus and rehearse work in the worst-case scenario when offices are quarantined by the state. Many leaders will clearly see that the central office and meetings in reality are not so necessary.

On the other hand, the boundaries between work and life tend to become even more blurred, and personal contact builds trust and brings teams together.

Access to remote workers and remote education can bring life to small towns and relieve the burden of metropolitan areas. But it will also reduce social frictions, and it will become even easier to find yourself in a social bubble. We will have less and less reason to go somewhere, to see people from other social strata, their problems, and life. That is, humanity can become even more disunited and easily manageable, in the same way as the algorithms of the tape and social networks fragment communities into separate echo chambers.

Workers (in the knowledge industry), meanwhile, can understand how pointless many meetings are and how easy it is to replace them with mail, how inefficient it is to stand in traffic jams twice a day, how much work time is wasted anywhere, and how bloated the workforce can be.

Week 10: Revisiting Analytics, SEO and Audience Growth

Google Analytics: Free Analysis Tool

The main advantage of Google Analytics is that it allows you to collect a lot of different information about the selected site. Based on the reports received, steps can be taken to improve the site.

Google analytics tools are very useful for entrepreneurs. Many conclusions can be drawn from the reports about site performance and user behavior. They allow you to determine which type of customer is most important, which marketing campaigns are delivering results, and how site traffic is generated. Such information is invaluable in developing business strategies and achieving business goals.

Google Analytics allows you to customize filters, and thus customize reports according to your individual needs. Filters allow you to separate different visits and events on your site.

Segmentation is another important tool that affects the analysis of all data. It is based on dividing users into smaller groups according to a specific criterion. You can create different segments, for example, direct visits, new users, traffic from referring sites. This section allows you to analyze the behavior of specific groups and gives much more detailed information about the work of the site.


Pancakes are the perfect breakfast for the whole family. Everyone loves them: both adults and children. Want to learn how to make a different pancake every day? Then this post is for you! Pancakes can be different – with yeast and yeast-free, as well as with various additives, fruit, vegetable or meat. Today I suggest that you consider kefir pancakes.


300 ml of kefir (room temperature) ⠀

1 egg⠀

4 table spoons of sugar⠀

1 tea spoon of baking soda ⠀

200 g of flower⠀


1. Whip an egg with sugar ⠀

2. Add kefir, then add flower and baking soda at the end⠀

3. Mix everything very well and leave for 10 min ⠀

4. Fry your pancakes and enjoy! ⠀

Week 9: Marketing, Monetization

Site monetization is all the way to make money on your site thanks to its visitors. Most of the ways to monetize a website are related to advertising: this can be, for example, placing advertising banners or publishing articles from partners.

Why do you need website monetization?
The creation of any site involves costs: creation, payment for a domain, and hosting, filling with content. When creating a website on a free website builder, you waste your time. Earning money on the site allows you to recoup its content and get additional income, which over time can turn into the main income.

What websites can be monetized?

Theoretically, you can monetize any site: information, news, commercial. But in practice, monetization will be successful only if there is sufficient traffic and the right way to monetize.

For example, with a small number of visitors, you are unlikely to get a good income from the placement of contextual advertising or banners. But if your small audience has value in the eyes of direct advertisers, then you can make good money by publishing promotional articles.

When to start monetizing

You shouldn’t start monetizing right after launching your website. This will scare away visitors who are unlikely to agree to watch ads on an unfamiliar site. And it will be difficult to find advertisers.

There are no strict timing guidelines. But you need to start monetization when the site has stable traffic. The choice of monetization method and how much you can earn on the site depends on the number of regular visitors. For example, with relatively small stable traffic, you can work with ad networks. When the number of daily visitors has reached several thousand, you can think about working with direct advertisers. The more and better the traffic, the higher the income.

Week 8: Content + Copyright

How do publishers create a unique presence in an increasingly crowded world of published content?

5 ways to produce unique content

1. Self-writing articles.
This is an independent writing of texts, in other words, the author’s copywriting. If you are excellent at writing texts and also have free time, then you will not find a better option and ways of presenting the information. Of the advantages of this method, I can note the following, you create unique content that is not found anywhere else.

2. Rewrite.
Rewriting other people’s texts is the most popular and accessible option because you don’t need to write very well and you already have ready-made material.
In other words, this is the presentation of a ready-made text in its own language. On the plus side, I can say the following: that you do not need to have special skills and it is always easier to redo something, or add something than to start from scratch.

3. Translation of foreign content.
Translation of foreign materials into your own language. Very often now it is also used especially in Runet because abroad there is a lot of unique material that can be translated and this will be very unique, useful, and in-demand content.
Of the advantages, as I said, this is a good way to obtain unique material and the possibility of availability in foreign sources, to get interesting material, since there is a lot of high-quality content abroad.
Of the minuses, I can name the following: You must have very good knowledge of a foreign language, in order to at least search and be able to find this content.

4. Word processing.
Processing of texts from paper sources today there is a mass, a huge number of books, magazines, some other paper-based materials that are not on the Internet or that have not been translated into the Internet. This is also a cool and unique opportunity to generate this content, recycle it, and, accordingly, put it somewhere on your own resources.

5. Purchase of ready-made texts.
Buying ready-made texts are the simplest option out of all of the above, but this option is not free, it is a paid option that you can use. You can buy parts on some exchanges, or order from some individual person from a freelancer or from some firms, sites that specialize in this particular service and are ready to provide this content.

Plov (Rice Dish)

This is the main stumbling block of all cooks who have ever cooked plov. Nevertheless, almost all of them agree that devzira rice is the best, as well as other Uzbek and Tajik varieties.

You can try to cook plov with other types of rice, but preferably not too starchy. And in any case, the rice should be rinsed well before laying (until the water is clear). This will wash away the starch dust and prevent the plov from sticking together. Cooks also advise soaking it in cold water for an hour or more.


📌500g of onion ⠀

📌500g of carrot ⠀

📌500g of beef or lamb ⠀

📌500g of rice ⠀

📌2 garlics ⠀

📌1 table spoon of cumin ⠀

📌1 1/2 table spoon of salt ⠀

📌50 ml of oil ⠀ ⠀ ⠀


1. Chop onion into half-rings and carrot into threads⠀

2. Cut meat into a big pieces ⠀

3. Heat up a pot on a very high hit. Add oil and wait until oil gets really hot ⠀

4. Put the meat into the pot (be careful! Oil may splash all over!). Right after you put the meat in, add a little salt to it. Fry the mean until it gets golden brown.⠀

5. Once meat is golden brown, place onion and fry it until it reaches gold color ⠀

6. Add carrot and fry until it’s half-ready. Add garlics. ⠀

7. Pour the water so it fully covers meat and veggies. Add salt and cumin. Boil all that for 1,5 hours. If necessary, add more water along the way. *from this point onwards, hear has to be on low ⠀

8. Now it’s time to add rice. You should clean rice very well before adding it into the dish. ⠀

9. Once you add rice, don’t mix the dish. Add water so it covers the rice. Close the lid and cook on medium heat for 15 min. ⠀

10. When the dish is ready, let it sit in the pot for 20-30 more minutes so it absorbs all flavors.⠀


Easter Bread

Easter bread is made and given to people only once a year, then cherished as long as possible after the end of the celebration. True believers know that, in addition to the attributes of the sacred holiday that are ubiquitous in the world, this is another most important symbol of Easter.
As a rule, people begin to bake artos during the days of Great Lent or shortly before it begins. It depends, first of all, on the required amount. In parish churches, where small quantities of bread are baked, they are fully managed in the week before Easter; in large monasteries, where the count is in the thousands, they begin to do this long before Great Lent.

Ingredients for the Easter Bread:

📌250 ml of milk ⠀

📌 200 g of sugar ⠀

📌3 eggs ⠀

📌100 g of butter⠀

📌2 table spoons of sour cream⠀

📌10 g of yeast ⠀

📌650 g of flower ⠀

📌dried cranberries ⠀ ⠀


1. Mix 2 spoons of sugar, all yeast and all milk. Leave the mixture for 15 min ⠀

2. Mix the remaining ingredients in a big bowl and make a dough ⠀

3. Cover the dough with a towel and leave for 1,5 hours ⠀

4. Place the dough in Easter bread forms and leave for 30 min ⠀

5. Bake 45 min on 350 Fahrenheit ⠀

6. Let the bread to cool down and finish it with icing and decoration⠀



📌1 egg⠀

📌30 g of sugar ⠀

📌20 g of flower⠀

📌5 g of baking soda ⠀

📌5 g of olive oil ⠀

📌green colorant ⠀ ⠀


Mix all the ingredients well. Divide the butter into 2 parts. Microwave each part for 1 min 15 sec on glass or a mug.



📌fine noodles ⠀

📌melted dark chocolate ⠀ ⠀


Mix fine noodles with melted dark chocolate. Place it in foil forms and put it in the fridge for 30 min. Once the chocolate cools down, nests are ready!


Pizza is a national Italian dish, which is a round open flatbread topped with melted cheese (usually mozzarella) and tomatoes. Cheese is by far the main ingredient in pizza. The rest of the ingredients differ depending on the type of pizza. Today, pizza is one of the most popular dishes in the world. That is why this dish is very popular in Russia.

Ingredients for the dough:

340 g of flower

241 g of cold water

7 g of salt

1,5 g of instant yeast

14 g of sugar

14 g of olive oil


1. Мix all ingreеdients until they come together very nicely. The dough should nice and smooth. The texture has to be solid and well-balanced.

2. When you are done mixing the dough, you have to fold it (see the video) 4 time with the interval of 10 min. *the dough is going to be very sticky! So oil your hands before working with the dough

3. Once you done folding the dough (4 times), you should leave it in a container (oil the container before!)

4. You should leave the dough in a container overnight (choose a container that’s gonna be at least twice bigger than your dough because it’s gonna raise)

5. When you are going to make your pizza, get the dough out of the fridge, pour some rice flower on the table and on tор of the dough. Leave the dough outside for 1 hour to rest before starting forming pizza. Don’t forget to cover it with cling wrap so it doesn’t dry out

6. Put whatever filling you want and bake it for 15 min on 440 Fahrenheit


Oven-baked salmon

Salmon is perhaps the most delicious and healthy fish. It is prepared quickly and easily, it turns out tender and juicy. 20 minutes and a perfect light dinner on the table. In reality, 30-35 minutes, 10 of which will be spent on preparing products, another 10 on baking (this time is quite enough, it is important not to dry the salmon). By the way, the sauce is just wonderful, it adds spice to the dish, as for my taste.


500 g of salmon

For marinade:

3 table spoons of lemon juice

3 table spoons of olive oil

2 table spoons of say sauce

3 table spoons of honey mustard


1. Mix lemon juice, olive oil, say sauce and honey mustard together

2. Rub it in the salmon and leave it for at least 60 min!

3. Bake salmon for 25 min on 360 Fahrenheit or 180 Celsius


Poppy Seeds Pie

Poppy seed pie is a memory from childhood. When there are no worries, when the day seems very long and the trees are tall. When grandmother is waiting for you, carefully heating a glass of milk and putting on the table a lush, shiny and fragrant roll with sweet poppy seeds covered with a towel.

Ingredients for the dough:

📌flower – 400 g⠀

📌warm milk – 200 ml ⠀

📌sugar – 40 g ⠀

📌yeast – 8 g ⠀

📌olive oil – 4 table spoons ⠀

📌egg – 1 ⠀ ⠀

Ingredients for the filling:⠀

📌sugar – 5 table spoons ⠀

📌poppy seeds – 5 table spoons⠀ ⠀


1. Mix all ingredients for the dough very well (for 5-10 min or until the dough no longer gets stuck to your hands)⠀

2. Leave the dough to rest for at least 60 min in a warm place (you can cover the dough with a towel)⠀

3. Mix poppy seeds and sugar together ⠀

4. Roll the dough, put in the filling and cut as shown in the video ⠀

5. Bake the pie in the over for 25 min on 360 Fahrenheit ⠀

Enjoy!⠀ ⠀

Week 7: Social Media: Expanding or Narrowing Our View?

Digital literacy and what it means to be digitally literate in today’s environment

Digital literacy refers to categories that are in constant flux. The concept is constantly changing and expanding to include new practices and skills provided by new digital technologies.

Digital literacy is domain dependent based not on skills, but on a body of knowledge that comes from mindful immersion in a context

Mike Caufield

(Lecture slides, week 7).

However, in light of the revolution in social networks, the widespread use of Internet technologies, the understanding of digital literacy is changing rapidly. What does it mean to be digitally literate in today’s environment?

  1. Ability to quickly find and evaluate large amounts of information.
  2. Be able to create your own reading algorithm, acquaintance with information through complex collections of related texts.
  3. Ability to quickly create connections between widely disparate ideas and areas of experience.
  4. Ability to shoot, copy, and edit digital photos and videos.
  5. Ability to create multimedia documents that combine words, graphics, video, and audio.
  6. Ability to create and maintain dynamic online profiles and manage large and complex online social networks.
  7. Ability to effectively learn and navigate online worlds and interact in virtual environments.
  8. Ability to protect your personal data from misuse by others.

In my opinion, these are the actual requirements of the present day. The teacher can decide, weigh which of the skills he does not possess at all or insufficiently. Which of these skills is more priority for him? Surely in a few years, the priorities will change. But this is the peculiarity of a modern teacher: to study all his life.

Log Cake


Ingredients for the dough:

📌6 eggs ⠀

📌180g of sugar ⠀

📌1 tea spoon of baking powder ⠀

📌1 table spoon of apple cider vinegar ⠀

📌1 table spoon of honey ⠀

📌200g of flower ⠀ ⠀

Ingredients for the cream:

📌1 liter of cream 33% ⠀

📌250g of Philadelphia cheese ⠀

📌60g of icing sugar⠀

📌2-3 table spoons of cocoa powder⠀ ⠀


1. Separate egg whites and yolks ⠀

2. Whip egg whites first and then add all remaining ingredients for the dough. Mix everything very well!⠀

3. Pour the mixture onto a baking sheet. Make sure you cover a sheet with wax paper or parchment⠀

4. Bake on 360 Fahrenheit or 180 Celsius for 15 min ⠀

5. For the cream, mix whipped cream for about 5 min. Add icing sugar and cocoa powered and mix for another minute. Remove whipped cream. Separately mix Philadelphia cheese until mass gets a nice and smooth texture. Add cream back in and mix for another 3-5 min. ⠀

6. Spread jam on a biscuit and then add the cream. ⠀

7. Roll the biscuit into the roll⠀

8. Decorate it the way you want it⠀


Glass Noodle Salad


Quite often, Asians use thin and long noodles in their kitchen. Funchoza began to gain popularity in Russia. What kind of noodles are they that are so popular both in Asia and in Russia?

Funchoza is an elongated transparent pasta made from bean starch. When dry, these noodles are white in color, and when interacting with hot liquid, they become transparent. Due to this quality, funchose has another name “glass noodles”.


📌beef (can be any type of meat)⠀

📌1 onion ⠀

📌1 carrot ⠀

📌1 bell pepper ⠀

📌1 medium cucumber ⠀

📌4-5 pieces of dry glass noodles ⠀

📌oyster sauce ⠀

📌Korean bbq sauce ⠀

📌sesame oil ⠀ ⠀


1. Cut all vegetable and beef in small slices. ⠀

2. Stir-fry beef with sesame oil. ⠀

3. Add 2 cups of water to the beaf and stew for 30-40 min or until the water evaporates. ⠀

4. Place all onion, carrot, and bell pepper on a bowl and give it a little squish. ⠀

5. When beef water evaporated, put all veggies (except cucumber) on a pan and stir-fry for 10 min. ⠀

6. Place glass noodles in a bowl and cover with boiling water. Let it sit for 3-5 min. Get rid of the water and cut noodles with scissors. ⠀

7. Mix all the ingredients in a bowl. ⠀

Enjoy! ⠀

Peer Review 2

In this peer review, I’m going to be reviewing Nicole’s blog about the life of a goalkeeper! Here is the website

I’m very excited to review Nicole’s blog because I have no idea about soccer whatsoever! And I think it would be nice to browse through Nicole’s blog and get to know something interesting and new about being a goalkeeper! I also love the idea of doing a blog about your own experience!

To start off, I would lke to say that it was pretty easy to figure out what Nicole’s blog is about. The name of the blog speaks for itself!

Moving to the website’s design, I have a few points I would like to share. First, the theme. I really like the theme Nicole chose, especially the white background because it looks very nice and clean. I also find interesting the color choice, which is pink. However, some people may find soccer more of a man’s game, Nicole did the right choice in pink color because website visitors may understand right away that its definitely a girl’s blog.

I also like the layout of this website. You can easily find what you may possibly look for!

The second thing I would like to cover is site structure. Overall, it’s not bad at all! However, I would recommend Nicole to slightly change it. In particular, I would create a menu with the name “Academics” or “Course Work” or “PUB101”. And then, I would add different categories there, such as Process posts, Peer reviews, Essays, Mini assignments. This way, it would be so much easier to navigate your website! I will attach an example below of how I did it.

The next thing that can be important is an integration of social media platforms.

Week 6: Publics/Digital Publics

How to grow your public/followers in Instagram

All methods are used to attract followers on Instagram. Let’s look at those that are often used in practice by novice bloggers:

  1. Constant publication of posts and pictures on Instagram. Perhaps this is the best opportunity to promote your account in it for free. Tell interesting stories using the “Stories” section, take pictures of yourself and your life on your phone to get your followers interested.
  2. Mutual following. This method of promoting Instagram is quite popular. The user subscribes to accounts, likes them and expects mutual support from other bloggers.
  3. Hashtag promotion. Hashtags are keywords that you can use on Instagram when posting. An example of a hashtag is “# how # to work” and so on.
  4. Using advertising for the promotion of an account on Instagram. The social network Instagram has a tool that can launch ads for $ 10-20 and bring you first subscribers.
  5. Ordering advertising from popular bloggers. On Instagram, you can order ads from a blogger for money and in return you will get a lot of followers. For example, there is the Storygain advertising exchange that easily solves such issues.
  6. Instagram account boost. This method of promoting Instagram is in last place, since it is not entirely effective and violates the rules of Instagram. Since with the help of services bots are wound on an Instagram account and then it can be blocked. It’s up to you to decide.


The development of information technologies in modern society has reached those conditions under which it is time to talk about new forms of democracy. Electronic democracy is a qualitatively different technology for the expression of the will of the people. And, most importantly, more frequent and accurate measurements of the mood of the general population, which would not entail significant financial costs. To this should be added such an undoubted advantage of Internet democracy as responsiveness and the speed of revealing public opinion.
According to the criterion of free access to social networks, many researchers now assess the degree of democratization of society. This approach is not without foundation. If only because the citizens of countries that are known to be “undemocratic” are deprived of the opportunity to use the Internet and, accordingly, social networks. This ban, in particular, was established by the DPRK government. A typical example.
There is no doubt that social networks expand the communication capabilities of individuals. They allow you to form a circle of communication outside the environment, given biographically – acquaintances that have appeared in the course of training, professional activity, due to the neighborhood, etc. Social media essentially breaks down these kinds of boundaries. The circle of communication is formed according to the criterion of common interests, the attractiveness of the interlocutor, the relevance of a topic, etc. But in the aspect of government interests, something else is more important: control over social networks is ineffective. Networks provide, above all, the free exchange of information. However, the real usernames are not always known. Identifying them is very costly, but the effect is rarely achievable.

Communication on social media provides an individual with the ability to resist official propaganda. Moreover, to conduct polemics with her within the network community. In addition, social networks can and are becoming tools for organizing communities that are practically not controlled by the government. And this already implies the danger of resonance, which creates conditions for a coup. Traditional “democratic” regimes, regardless of the government’s opinion, cannot restrict access to social networks. After all, this is an encroachment on the fundamental principle of the organization of society – the notorious democracy. Governments that have already been recognized as “undemocratic” do not need to worry about such consequences. In such states, there is a prohibitive principle: everything that is not officially allowed is prohibited. The situation is somewhat different in countries whose governments claim to be “democratic”. Bans are recognized as inappropriate but attempts at the level of legislation to limit or control the activities of social networks are characteristic.

The development of the Internet makes it possible to reduce the costs of transmitting information through social networks and potentially makes them more effective than traditional methods of campaigning: political advertising on the air of television and radio channels, publication in print media, posting posters on the street. Social movements are becoming an important component of the political process (Della Porta, Diani, 1999). One of the factors in the formation of these social movements are social networks, which are beginning to play an increasing role in the modern political process.

The first large-scale attempt to use the power of social networks in a political campaign was made in the United States in the framework of “primaries” (selection of a candidate from a party) before the 2004 elections. Deanspace website played an important role in the company of Democratic candidate Howard Dean. The Deanspaece website was created by volunteers to energize the social networks of Dean’s supporters, and the site’s core toolkit was aimed at self-organizing and networking small support groups. Despite the fact that the site quickly became popular, it created groups for each state, for a number of cities and various thematic groups (scientists for Dean, women for Dean, etc.), he could not turn the tide. As a result, Howard Dean did not win the Primary in any of the states. Researchers justify the low voting results by the poor connection between the team of volunteers who worked on the creation and development of the site, and Dean’s campaign headquarters, as well as the low level of Internet penetration in rural areas (Lebkowsky J., Ratcliffe, 2005, p. 307).

Four years later, during the 2008 primaries, all these mistakes were taken into account by the campaign headquarters of the candidate for the Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama. Social media played a significant role in financing Obama’s election campaign because the main large donors to the Democratic Party supported Hillary Clinton (Plouffe, 2009). Of the $32 million raised in January 2008, when Barack Obama’s campaign headquarters set a record for the volume of campaign donations collected in one month, 28 million were received via the Internet, with 90% of these donations being less than $ 100 (Obama Raises $5.8 Million online After Super Tuesday). Social media also helped to activate supporters who usually did not participate in elections, did not follow political news in the conventional media, and were not members of political parties (Plouffe, 2009, p. 255). Bark Obama’s campaign demonstrates the effectiveness of using social media to disseminate political information. The development of the Internet is giving horizontal social networks the tools to be more effective than ever before. This will inevitably lead to a change in traditional forms of political participation, such as political parties, and to the further development of direct citizen participation in the political process.

Bibliography Obama Raises $5.8 Million online After Super Tuesday


Della Porta D., Diani M. Social Movements: An Introduction. — Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1999.

Lebkowsky J., Ratcliffe M. Extreme Democracy. —, 2005.

Plouffe D. The Audacity to Win: The Inside Story and Lessons of Barack Obama’s Historic Victory. — Viking Adult, 2009